Patient Involvement

Identifying the role patients have in preventing periprosthetic joint infection, including elevated risk factors and actions that can be taken pre and post operatively to reduce their revision risk.


Patient Risk Calculators

PJI Calculator:
Preoperative risk calculator for developing recurrent infection after revision THA and TKA

PJI Calculator:<br />Preoperative risk calculator for developing recurrent infection after revision THA and TKA

VTE Estimator:
Risk calculator for developing venous thromboembolism following TJA.

VTE Estimator:<br />Risk calculator for developing venous thromboembolism following TJA.


Development and Evaluation of a Preoperative Risk Calculator for Periprosthetic Joint Infection Following Total Joint Arthroplasty

TL Tan MD, MG Maltenfort PhD, AF Chen MD MBA, A Shahi MD, CA Higuera MD, M Siqueira MD, J Parvizi MD FRCS



  • Development and Evaluation of a Preoperative Risk Calculator for Periprosthetic Joint Infection Following Total Joint Arthroplasty
    TL Tan MD, MG Maltenfort PhD, AF Chen MD MBA, A Shahi MD, CA Higuera MD, M Siqueira MD, J Parvizi MD FRCS
    BACKGROUND: Preoperative identification of patients at risk for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) following total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is important for patient optimization and targeted prevention. The purpose of this study was to create a preoperative PJI risk calculator for assessing a patient’s individual risk of developing (1) any PJI, (2) PJI caused by Staphylococcus aureus, and (3) PJI caused by antibiotic-resistant organisms.
    METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 27,717 patients (12,086 TKAs and 31,167 THAs), including 1,035 with confirmed PJI, who were treated at a single institution from 2000 to 2014. A total of 42 risk factors, including patient characteristics and surgical variables, were evaluated with a multivariate analysis in which coefficients were scaled to produce integer scores. External validation was performed with use of data on 29,252 patients who had undergone total joint arthroplasty (TJA) at an independent institution.
    RESULTS: Of the 42 risk factors studied, 25 were found not to be significant risk factors for PJI. The most influential of the remaining 17 included a previous open surgical procedure, drug abuse, a revision procedure, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The areas under the curves were 0.83 and 0.84 for any PJI, 0.86 and 0.83 for antibiotic-resistant PJI, and 0.86 and 0.73 for S. aureus PJI in the internal and external validation models, respectively. The rates of PJI were 0.56% and 0.61% in the lowest decile of risk scores and 15.85% and 20.63% in the highest decile.
    CONCLUSIONS: In this large-cohort study, we were able to identify and validate risk factors and their relative weights for predicting PJI. Factors such as prior surgical procedures and high-risk comorbidities should be considered when determining whether TJA is indicated and when counseling patients.


  • A comprehensive joint replacement rehabilitation program at the Verde Valley Medical Center. 2015.
    Cook J, Jain T, Warren M, et al
    Background: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a commonly performed surgical procedure in the US. It is important to have a comprehensive inpatient TKA program which maximizes outcomes while minimizing adverse events. The purpose of this study was to describe a TKA program – the Joint Replacement Program (JRP) – and report post-surgical outcomes.
    Methods: 74 candidates for a primary TKA were enrolled in the JRP. The JRP was designed to minimize complications and optimize patient-centered outcomes using a team approach including the patient, patient’s family, and a multidisciplinary team of health professionals. The JRP consisted of a pre-operative class, standard pathways for medical care, comprehensive peri-operative pain management, aggressive physical therapy (PT), and proactive discharge planning. Measures included functional tests, knee range of motion (ROM), and medical record abstraction of patient demographics, length of stay, discharge disposition, and complications over a 6-month follow-up period.
    Results: All patients achieved medical criteria for hospital discharge. The patients achieved the knee flexion ROM goal of 90° (91.7 ± 5.4°), but did not achieve the knee extension ROM goal of 0° (2.4 ± 2.6°). The length of hospital stay was two days for 53% of the patients, with 39% and 7% discharged in three and four days, respectively. All but three patients were discharged home with functional independence. 68% of these received outpatient physical therapy compared with 32% who received home physical therapy immediately after discharge. Two patients (< 3%) had medical complications during the inpatient hospital stay, and 9 patients (12%) had complications during the 6-month follow-up period.
    Conclusion: The comprehensive JRP for TKA was associated with satisfactory clinical outcomes, short lengths of stay, a high percentage of patients discharged home with outpatient PT, and minimal complications. This JRP may represent an efficient, effective and safe protocol for providing care after a TKA.


  • Total joint replacement: A multiple risk factor analysis of physical activity level 1–2 years postoperatively
    Elizabeth W Paxton 1, Andy Torres 1, Rebecca M Love 1, Thomas C Barber 2, Dhiren S Sheth 3, and Maria C S Inacio 1,4A9:D9
    Background and purpose – The effect of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) on physical activity is not fully understood. We investigated the change in physical activity after TJA and patient factors associated with change.
    Patients and methods – Using a total joint replacement registry, primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients (n = 5,678) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients (n = 11,084) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 were identified. Median age at THA was 68 and median age at TKA was 67. Change in self-reported physical activity (minutes per week) from before TJA (within 1 year of surgery) to after TJA (1-2 years) was the outcome of interest. Patient demographics and comorbidities were evaluated as risk factors. Multiple linear regression was used.
    Results – Median physical activity before surgery was 50 min/week (IQR: 0-140) for THA patients and 58 (IQR: 3-143) for TKA patients. Median physical activity after surgery was 150 min/week (IQR: 60-280) for both THA patients and TKA patients. Following TJA, 50% of patients met CDC/WHO physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index was associated with lower change in physical activity (THA: -7.1 min/week; TKA: -5.9 min/week). Females had lower change than males (THA: -11 min/week; TKA: -9.1 min/week). In TKA patients, renal failure was associated with lower change (-17 min/week), as were neurological disorders (-30 min/week).
    Interpretation – Self-reported minutes of physical activity increased from before to after TJA, but 50% of TJA patients did not meet recommended physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index, female sex, and specific comorbidities were found to be associated with low change in physical activity. Patient education on the benefits of physical activity should concentrate on these subgroups of patients.


  • Effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise following total knee replacement: systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Artz N, Elvers K, Lowe C, et al.
    BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation, with an emphasis on physiotherapy and exercise, is widely promoted after total knee replacement. However, provision of services varies in content and duration. The aim of this study is to update the review of Minns Lowe and colleagues 2007 using systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of post-discharge physiotherapy exercise in patients with primary total knee replacement.
    METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL and Cochrane CENTRAL to October 4(th) 2013 for randomised evaluations of physiotherapy exercise in adults with recent primary knee replacement. Outcomes were: patient-reported pain and function, knee range of motion, and functional performance. Authors were contacted for missing data and outcomes. Risk of bias and heterogeneity were assessed. Data was combined using random effects meta-analysis and reported as standardised mean differences (SMD) or mean differences (MD).
    RESULTS: Searches identified 18 randomised trials including 1,739 patients with total knee replacement. Interventions compared: physiotherapy exercise and no provision; home and outpatient provision; pool and gym-based provision; walking skills and more general physiotherapy; and general physiotherapy exercise with and without additional balance exercises or ergometer cycling. Compared with controls receiving minimal physiotherapy, patients receiving physiotherapy exercise had improved physical function at 3-4 months, SMD -0.37 (95% CI -0.62, -0.12), and pain, SMD -0.45 (95% CI -0.85, -0.06). Benefit up to 6 months was apparent when considering only higher quality studies. There were no differences for outpatient physiotherapy exercise compared with home-based provision in physical function or pain outcomes. There was a short-term benefit favouring home-based physiotherapy exercise for range of motion flexion. There were no differences in outcomes when the comparator was hydrotherapy, or when additional balancing or cycling components were included. In one study, a walking skills intervention was associated with a long-term improvement in walking performance. However, for all these evaluations studies were under-powered individually and in combination.
    CONCLUSION: After recent primary total knee replacement, interventions including physiotherapy and exercise show short-term improvements in physical function. However this conclusion is based on meta-analysis of a few small studies and no long-term benefits of physiotherapy exercise interventions were identified. Future research should target improvements to long-term function, pain and performance outcomes in appropriately powered trials.


  • Opioid use after total hip arthroplasty surgery is associated with revision surgery
    Maria C. S. InacioMS, PhD1*, Nicole L. PrattPhD1,2, Elizabeth E. RougheadPhD1,2,
    Background Pain is an indication for total hip arthroplasty (THA) and it should be resolved post-surgery. Because patients’ pain is typically treated pharmacologically we tested whether opioid use can be used as a surrogate for patient-reported pain and as an indicator for early surgical failure. Specifically, we evaluated whether the amount of opioids taken within the year after THA was associated with one and five years risk of revision surgery.
    Methods A cohort of 9943 THAs (01/2001-12/2012) was evaluated. Post-operative opioid use was the exposure of interest and cumulative daily oral morphine equivalent (OME) amounts were calculated. Total OMEs/90-day periods were categorised into quartiles. Revisions within one and five years were the outcomes of interest.
    Results Of the THAs, 2.0 % (N = 200) were revised within one year and 4.2 % (N = 413) within five years. After adjustments for gender, age, surgical indication, co-morbidities, and other analgesics, revision was associated with amount of OMEs in the second quarter after THA (days 91–180 after discharge). Patients on medium-high amounts of OME (400-1119 mg) had higher risk of one (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.22, 95 % CI 1.08-4.56) and five year (HR = 1.66, 95 % CI 1.08-2.56) revision than a patient not taking opioids. During the same period, patients taking the highest amounts of OMEs (≥1120 mg) had a 2.64 (95 % CI 1.03-6.74) times higher risk of one year and a 2.11 (95 % CI 1.13-3.96) times higher risk of five year revision.
    Conclusions Opioid use 91–180 days post-surgery is associated with higher risk of revision surgery and therefore is an early and useful indicator for surgical failure.


  • Rate and Risk Factors for Periprosthetic Joint Infection among 36,494 Primary Total Hip Arthroplasties
    GK Triantafyllopoulos., VG Soranoglou., SG Memtsoudis., TP Sculco., LA Pultsides
    BACKGROUND: As periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) can have tremendous health and socioeconomic implications, recognizing patients at risk before surgery is of great importance. Therefore, we sought to determine the rate of and risk factors for deep PJI in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA).
    METHODS: Clinical characteristics of patients treated with primary THA between January 1999 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. These included patient demographics, comorbidities (including the Charlson/Deyo comorbidity index), length of stay, primary diagnosis, total/allogeneic transfusion rate, and in-hospital complications, which were grouped into local and systemic (minor and major). We determined the overall deep PJI rate, as well as the rates for early-onset (occurring within 2 years after index surgery) and late-onset PJI (occurring more than 2 years after surgery). A Cox proportional hazards regression model was constructed to identify risk factors for developing deep PJI. Significance level was set at 0.05.
    RESULTS: A deep PJI developed in 154 of 36,494 primary THAs (0.4%) during the study period. Early onset PJI was found in 122 patients (0.3%), whereas late PJI occurred in 32 patients (0.1%). Obesity, coronary artery disease, and pulmonary hypertension were identified as independent risk factors for deep PJI after primary THA.
    CONCLUSION: The rate of deep PJIs of the hip is relatively low, with the majority occurring within 2 years after THA. If the optimization of modifiable risk factors before THA can reduce the rate of this complication remains unknown, but should be attempted as part of good practice.


  • The impact of patient and surgical factors on the rate of infection after primary total knee arthroplasty: an analysis of 64,566 joints from the New Zealand Joint Registry
    E.R. Tayton, C. Frampton, G. J. Hooper, S.W. Young
    AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA).
    PATIENTS AND METHODS: The New Zealand Joint Registry database was analysed, using revision surgery for PJI at six and 12 months after surgery as primary outcome measures. Statistical associations between revision for infection, with common and definable surgical and patient factors were tested.
    RESULTS: A total of 64 566 primary TKAs have been recorded on the registry between 1999 and 2012 with minimum follow-up of 12 months. Multivariate analysis showed statistically significant associations with revision for PJI between male gender (odds ratio (OR) 1.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24 to 2.74), previous surgery (osteotomy (OR 2.45 95% CI 1.2 to 5.03), ligament reconstruction (OR 1.85, 95% CI 0.68 to 5.00)), the use of laminar flow (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.47) and the use of antibiotic-laden cement (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.19 to 3.13). There was a trend towards significance (p = 0.052) with the use of surgical helmet systems at six months (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.34).
    CONCLUSION: These findings show that patient factors remain the most important in terms of predicting early PJI following TKA. Furthermore, we found no evidence that modern surgical helmet systems reduce the risk of PJI and laminar flow systems may actually increase risk in TKA. The use of this registry data assists the estimation of the risk of PJI for individual patients, which is important for both informed consent and the interpretation of infection rates at different institutions.
    TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Infection rates in TKA are related to both individual patient and surgical factors, and some modern methods of reducing infection may actually increase infection risk.