AAHKS SYMPOSIUM: Perspectives on Next Generation Sequencing Javad Parvizi, MD, FRCS
The Gut or Joint Microbiome: Which is the most promising frontier in PJI Research?
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Use of Vancomycin Sprinkle in Primary TJR
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Against Vancomycin Sprinkle
Pro Vancomycin Sprinkle
The American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons, Hip Society, Knee Society, and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Position Statement on Outpatient Joint Replacement
ARTICLES & DATA
- The American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons, Hip Society, Knee Society, and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Position Statement on Outpatient Joint Replacement
- Robotic-Assisted Surgery: Balancing Evidence and Implementation
Over the last 2 decades, laparoscopic surgical procedures have been developed for a variety of operations. Laparoscopic surgery allows for the completion of a procedure through multiple small incisions as opposed to laparotomy, which requires 1 large incision. For many procedures, laparoscopy has been demonstrated to be safe and is associated with fewer complications, shorter hospitalization, and faster return to normal function than laparotomy.
- Association of Bisphosphonate Use and Risk of Revision After THA: Outcomes From a US Total Joint Replacement Registry
BACKGROUND: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is often performed in patients who are older and may take bisphosphonates to treat a variety of conditions, most commonly osteoporosis. However, the clinical effects of bisphosphonate use on patients who have undergone THA are not well described. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Is bisphosphonate use in patients with osteoarthritis undergoing primary THA associated with a change in the risk of all-cause revision, aseptic revision, or periprosthetic fracture compared with patients not treated with bisphosphonates? (2) Does the risk of bisphosphonate use and revision and periprosthetic fracture vary by patient bone mineral density and age?
METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 12,878 THA recipients for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis was conducted; 17.8% of patients were bisphosphonate users. Data sources for this study included a joint replacement registry (93% voluntary participation) and electronic health records and an osteoporosis screening database with complete capture of cases as part of the Kaiser Permanente integrated healthcare system. The endpoints for this study were revision surgery for any cause, aseptic revision, and periprosthetic fracture. The exposure of interest was bisphosphonate use; patients were considered users if prescriptions were continuously refilled for a period equal to or longer than 6 months. Bone quality (based on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometery ordered based on the National Osteoporosis Foundation’s clinical guidelines taken within 5 years of the THA) and patient age (< 65 versus ≥ 65 years) were evaluated as effect modifiers. Patient, surgeon, and hospital factors were evaluated as confounders. Cox proportional hazards models were used. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined.
RESULTS: Age- and sex-adjusted risks of all-cause (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.33-0.74; p < 0.001) and aseptic revision (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34-0.81; p = 0.004) was lower in bisphosphonate users than in nonusers. The adjusted risk of periprosthetic fractures in patients on bisphosphonates was higher than in patients not on bisphosphonates (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.13-3.27; p = 0.016). Lower risks of all-cause revision and aseptic revision were observed in patients with osteopenia (HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.29-0.84; and HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.29-0.99, respectively) and osteoporosis (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.08-0.62; and HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.11-0.99, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients considered bisphosphonate users who underwent THA had a lower risk for revision surgery. Bisphosphonate use was associated with a higher risk of periprosthetic fractures in younger patients with normal bone quantity. Evaluation of bone quality and bisphosphonate use for the diagnosis of osteoporosis is encouraged in patients with osteoarthritis who are candidates for primary THA. Further research is required to determine the optimal duration of therapy because long-term bisphosphonate use has been associated with atypical femur fractures. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.
- Cementless vs Cemented Tibial Fixation in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty
BACKGROUND: The ideal fixation for modern tibial components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains controversial with uncertainty on whether cementless implants can yield equivalent outcomes to cemented fixation in early follow-up.
METHODS: A series of 70 consecutive cases with reverse hybrid cementless fixation were matched to 70 cemented cases from 2008 to 2015 based on implant design and patient demographics.
RESULTS: Cementless TKA demonstrated greater aseptic loosening (7 vs 0, P = .013) and revision surgery (10 vs 0, P = .001) than cemented fixation within 5 years of follow-up, but with no clinically significant differences in outcome scores.
CONCLUSION: It remains unclear whether early aseptic loosening in cementless TKA can be reduced with enhanced adjunct fixation and what proportion of early failure justifies the potential lifelong fixation through biologic ingrowth of cementless tibial components.
- Intrawound Vancomycin Powder in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty Increases Rate of Sterile Wound Complications
Purpose Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a successful surgery for the treatment of hip osteoarthritis; however, the risk of a post-operative prosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains at 1% to 2%. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety profile of using vancomycin powder (VP) to reduce infection rates by reviewing acute postoperative complications.
Materials and Methods A retrospective review of 265 consecutive patients undergoing THA was performed. The first 128 patients, the control group, did not receive VP, and the subsequent 137 patients, the VP group, received VP at the time of wound closure. Patient demographic data, medical comorbidities, and perioperative information were compared.
Results The primary outcome was a post-operative surgical complication within 90 days from surgery. The control and VP group’s demographic, medical comorbidities and perioperative information data were statistically similar. Deep infection rate in the control group was 5.5%, whereas the deep infection rate in the VP group was 0.7% (P=0.031). Sterile wound complication rate was 4.4% in the VP group, and 0% in the control group (P=0.030). Remaining complications were not statistically different between the groups.
Conclusion VP was associated with an increase rate of sterile wound complications compared to the control group. The rate of PJI was decreased with the use of VP. We do not recommend for or against the use of VP at time of wound closure to prevent PJI, and higher powered studies will need to be performed to demonstrate the efficacy of VP.
- Gut Microbiota Promote Hematopoiesis to Control Bacterial Infection
The commensal microbiota impacts specific immune cell populations and their functions at peripheral sites, such as gut mucosal tissues. However, it remains unknown whether gut microbiota control immunity through regulation of hematopoiesis at primary immune sites. We reveal that germ-free mice display reduced proportions and differentiation potential of specific myeloid cell progenitors of both yolk sac and bone marrow origin. Homeostatic innate immune defects may lead to impaired early responses to pathogens. Indeed, following systemic infection with Listeria monocytogenes, germ-free and oral-antibiotic-treated mice display increased pathogen burden and acute death. Recolonization of germ-free mice with a complex microbiota restores defects in myelopoiesis and resistance to Listeria. These findings reveal that gut bacteria direct innate immune cell development via promoting hematopoiesis, contributing to our appreciation of the deep evolutionary connection between mammals and their microbiota.
- Targeting the Gut Microbiome to Treat the Osteoarthritis of Obesity
Obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), the greatest cause of disability in the US. The impact of obesity on OA is driven by systemic inflammation, and increased systemic inflammation is now understood to be caused by gut microbiome dysbiosis. Oligofructose, a nondigestible prebiotic fiber, can restore a lean gut microbial community profile in the context of obesity, suggesting a potentially novel approach to treat the OA of obesity. Here, we report that – compared with the lean murine gut – obesity is associated with loss of beneficial Bifidobacteria, while key proinflammatory species gain in abundance. A downstream systemic inflammatory signature culminates with macrophage migration to the synovium and accelerated knee OA. Oligofructose supplementation restores the lean gut microbiome in obese mice, in part, by supporting key commensal microflora, particularly Bifidobacterium pseudolongum. This is associated with reduced inflammation in the colon, circulation, and knee and protection from OA. This observation of a gut microbiome-OA connection sets the stage for discovery of potentially new OA therapeutics involving strategic manipulation of specific microbial species inhabiting the intestinal space.
- Successful Identification of Pathogens by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-Based Electron Spray Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) in Culture-Negative Periprosthetic Joint Infection
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection poses many challenges, one of which is the difficulty of isolating the infecting organism. Recently, a sophisticated modality (the Ibis Biosciences T5000 biosensor system) has been introduced that uses pan-domain primers in a series of polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) to identify and speciate essentially all bacteria and fungi as well as to identify key antibiotic resistance genes. We investigated the role of the Ibis in identifying infecting organisms in cases of known and suspected periprosthetic joint infection.
METHODS: Synovial fluid specimens were collected prospectively from eighty-two patients undergoing eighty-seven arthroplasty procedures (sixty-five knee revisions, fifteen hip revisions, and seven primary knee arthroplasties) and were sent for both conventional culture and Ibis analysis. The surgeon’s clinical determination of the cause for revision arthroplasty was failure due to infection in twenty-three cases and noninfectious failure in fifty-seven cases.
RESULTS: In the twenty-three cases that were considered on clinical grounds to involve a periprosthetic joint infection, the Ibis detected the same pathogen isolated by conventional culture in seventeen of eighteen cases and also detected one or more organisms in four of the five culture-negative cases. In addition, the Ibis detected organisms in fifty (88%) of the fifty-seven cases in which revision arthroplasty was performed for a presumed noninfectious failure.
CONCLUSIONS: The Ibis technology was not only effective at detecting organisms in cases of suspected periprosthetic joint infection in which cultures were negative, but it also suggested that many of the revision arthroplasty cases that have previously been considered to be purely aseptic may have a component of unrecognized, subclinical infection.
- Robotics in Orthopedics: A Brave New World
Future health-care projection projects a significant growth in population by 2020. Health care has seen an exponential growth in technology to address the growing population with the decreasing number of physicians and health-care workers. Robotics in health care has been introduced to address this growing need. Early adoption of robotics was limited because of the limited application of the technology, the cumbersome nature of the equipment, and technical complications. A continued improvement in efficacy, adaptability, and cost reduction has stimulated increased interest in robotic-assisted surgery. The evolution in orthopedic surgery has allowed for advanced surgical planning, precision robotic machining of bone, improved implant-bone contact, optimization of implant placement, and optimization of the mechanical alignment. The potential benefits of robotic surgery include improved surgical work flow, improvements in efficacy and reduction in surgical time. Robotic-assisted surgery will continue to evolve in the orthopedic field.
- The Emerging Role of 3D Printing in Arthroplasty and Orthopedics
This article reviews the emerging role of 3D printing in arthroplasty and orthopedics, a topic of growing relevancy. It discusses the evolution of the technology, the value offered by the technology, current trends and factors impacting adoption in orthopedics, and areas of current and potential future use in arthroplasty and orthopedics.